It was created in 1881 as Marine District, and then in November, 1907 as a province. This province covers an area of 1939.38 square kilometers. At the East of Barahona you can find the Caribbean Sea and Azua Province, at the South Pedernales Province, at the West Independencia Province and at the North Baoruco Province. There is a population of 179,239 people, from them 91,636 are men and 87,603 are women. The population density corresponds to 103 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Principal Municipality: Barahona, with 77,698 inhabitants.
Other municipalities: Cabral, El Peñón, Enriquillo, Fundación, Jaquimeyes, La Ciénaga, Las Salinas, Paraíso, Polo and Vicente Noble.
Municipal districts: El Cachón, Arroyo Dulce, Pescadería, Palo Alto, Bahoruco, Los Patos, Canoa, Fondo Negro and Quita Coraza.
A great part of the province mainly the East, is occupied by Bahoruco Mountain Range. You can also find Martin García Mountain Range, in the limits of Azua the extreme east of Neiba Mountain Range and Salt and Chalk little Hill.
There are several rivers in this region but the most important is Yaque del Sur which flows to the sea at only a few kilometers North of Barahona.The second most important river is Nizaíto. Other rivers which have short courses are the Palomino, Bahoruco, San Rafael, Sito and Los Patos. Rincón or Cabral Lake is shared with Barahona and Independencia Provinces.
Its economy is diverse but not so extended. The principal products are coffee (At Bahoruco Mountain Range), banana (At the river basin of Yaque del Sur River)
and sugar cane(Next to Barahona City where a sugar mill is located)
Mineral resourses like salt and chalk are taken from Salt and Chalk little hill .Salt is taken from the salt mines next to Neyba Bay; and pectolit (Larimar) in Las Filipinas, Bahoruco Mountain Range. Fishing activities are also outstanding along the coast.
Tourist activities are very numerous due to attractive places such as sunny beaches and rivers with clear refreshing water like Saladilla River, San Rafael River and Los Patos River. These places are the attraction of a great number of people.
Rincón or Cabral Lake as well as Oriental Bahoruco Mountains (between Paraíso and Polo) are the main attractions of bird observers.