This province was created in 1942, but it was not until 1972 that it was named like that in honor of Colonel of military services Elias Piña, a native person from Las Margaritas.
Elias Peña is located at the West of the Dominican Republic, in the border line of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. At the North of Elias Peña you can find Dejabon and Santiago Rodríguez Provinces, San Juan is at the East; and Independencia Province is at the South. The provincial capital is Comendador City. There is a territory of 1.426,20 square kilometers.
There is population of 63,879 people, from them 32,986 are men and 30,893 are women. The population density is 45 inhabitants per square kilometer, one of the lowest of the country.
The municipalities are:
• Comendador, principal municipality.
• El Llano
• Hondo Valle
• Juan Santiago
• Pedro Santana
The municipal districts are:
• Rancho de la Guardia
• Río Limpio
• Sabana Cruz
• Sabana Higüero
• Sabana Larga
Artibonito River, which originates near Nalga de Maco is the principal river of this province and is used as border line with Haiti for several kilometers. The other rivers of the region are direct or indirect affluents from Artibonico River. Other rivers are the Macasias River, Tocino River, Joca River and Caña River (also called: Caño).
In low regions the vegetation is typically of savannah mainly due to long periods without rain during fall and winter. Forests from this region develop mainly near rivers where vegetation is abundant.
It is possible to distinguish two types of vegetation in mountain areas like those from pine trees with the presence of the creole pine (Pinus occidentalis) and the humid forest vegetation. Both of them have been affected by discriminated lumber poerations and the migratory agriculture. Intact native woods are still found in just a few places.
Like in all provinces with border lines the economical development in general is not very high. There is an important commercial activity with Haiti, especially in Comendador Province. The farming production is dedicated only to minor plantations of some products and moderate goat and ovine cattle raising. There is a great production of coffee, potato and kidney beans.
Tourist activity is not very lively. We can only mention peregrinations to San Francisco Hill, in Bánica. This hill is a protected area and it was declared Natural Monument.
There are two national parks: Nalga de Maco Park in the Northeast, and Neiba Mountain Range National Park in the South. But they have no outstanding eco-tourist development.